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history of antarctica

Tamarereti, a Polynesian explorer, also saw the icy south, according to oral tradition. As the pair flew south, sighting and naming the Eternity and Sentinel Ranges, Ellsworth was overcome by the realization that his years of effort were finally paying off: ‘Suddenly I felt supremely happy for my share in the opportunity to unveil the last continent in human history.’. Sailing on, he decided to winter at a sheltered bay on the north coast of Booth Island, a place he named Port Charcot for his father. Australia, meanwhile, urged on by Douglas Mawson and John King Davis, dispatched a ‘rescue’ attempt, although Wilkins and Wyatt Earp had already made detailed plans to pick up Ellsworth and Hollick-Kenyon at the Bay of Whales after their flight. History of Antarctica is similar to these topics: Antarctica, List of Antarctic expeditions, Farthest South and more. Four years later, Charcot returned to Antarctica, this time leading an expedition sponsored by the French government, which granted him 600, 000 francs. Although Nordenskjöld’s expedition is remembered primarily for its survival against nearly overwhelming odds, it also performed the most important research in Antarctica (including studies in botany, geology, glaciology and hydrography) undertaken up to its time. On January 9, 1841, he broke through to open water, becoming the first to reach what we know today as the Ross Ice Shelf. In 1599, Dutchman Dirck Gerritsz described land in the vicinity of the South Shetland Islands, and through the 1600s Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English and French navigators penetrated south of Cape Horn. He later gave it the memorable name ‘the Home of the Blizzard.’ Eight men led by Frank Wild, another veteran of Shackleton’s Nimrod expedition, were landed at the Shackleton Ice Shelf, 2400km west of Cape Denison. Ross’ third season was equally disappointing: trying to best Weddell’s southing record in Weddell’s namesake sea, Ross found conditions similar to those encountered by everyone but Weddell. So convincing were his pessimistic sentiments that Cook discouraged other explorers from seeking the great southern continent for decades afterward. One final charge, on February 16, 1904, released Discovery for the long journey home. At Antarctic’s helm was Larsen, the Norwegian who had already discovered Oscar II Land during a previous expedition in 1892–94. By mid-December, Deutschland reached the Weddell Sea pack ice. During the sealing era from about 1780 to 1892, more than 1100 sealing ships visited Antarctic regions (both the peri-Antarctic islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula), compared to barely 25 exploration ships. With British soldier Belgrave Ninnis and Swiss mountaineer and ski champion Xavier Mertz, Mawson left Cape Denison on November 10, 1912, to explore eastward. Glaciologists study the Antarctic Ice Sheet, learning how it formed and how it affects the land under it. Unable to land, it returned to winter in Sydney, where Shirase and his countrymen set up camp in the garden of a well-to-do resident of suburban Vaucluse. Finding none, he headed south once more, sailing eastward and discovering Adelaide Island (which he named for the consort of King William IV) on February 16, 1832. By this time, scurvy plagued his ships; on the return to Tierra del Fuego a sailor died of the dreaded disease. Departing London on August 22, 1898, Southern Cross arrived at Cape Adare on February 17, 1899. This incredible voyage was not to be repeated for nearly 2000 years. A smaller, follow-up expedition the next year (later nicknamed Operation Windmill for its extensive use of helicopters) surveyed major features sighted by Highjump. In 1831, as second-in-command of a voyage led by his uncle, John Ross, he located the North Magnetic Pole. The first expedition to Antarctica with travelers was in 1966, led by Swedish explorer Lars Eric Lindblad. Dogs and skis made the difference. Fram had a diesel engine, allowing quick start-up (as opposed to a coal-fired steam engine), as well as a rounded hull so it would rise out of pressing ice floes rather than being nipped like a standard hull. After a joyful reunion, all that was left to do (on November 11) was pick up the remaining Antarctic crew members back on Paulet Island. A legend created by Palmer’s biographer, sealer Edmund Fanning, insists that Bellingshausen was so impressed by Palmer’s claims of knowledge that he named the new territory after Palmer. In February 1954, Phillip Garth Law and the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) set up Mawson station in East Antarctica. It used helicopters and icebreakers for the first time in the Antarctic. Drygalski named the ship after German mathematician Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss, who had calculated the position of the South Magnetic Pole, the accuracy of which Ross had set out to test. He and two of the six men who had sailed James Caird with him, Tom Crean and Frank Worsley, hiked for 36 straight hours over the 1800m-high mountains and crevassed glaciers to reach Stromness whaling station. What was beyond it we could not imagine.’ This barrier, today known as the Ross Ice Shelf, also frustrated him: ‘We might with equal chance of success try to sail through the Cliffs of Dover, as penetrate such a mass.’ The two ships cruised along the Barrier for 450km, the sailors in awe of its unchanging face, oblivious to even the most gigantic wave crashing against it. Elephant seals grow to massive sizes, particularly males, but the sealers found ‘sea elephants’ easy prey. Sailing from Troon on November 2, 1902 in Scotia, a renamed Norwegian steam sealer with extremely elegant lines, the expedition pushed south into the Weddell Sea. Thus, one slightly ironic outcome of this tragic ‘race’ is that Scott ended up confirming Amundsen’s attainment of the Pole. Preparing the pelts required the removal of the guard hairs, a technique for many decades known only by the Chinese. were again sailing in treacherous waters, this time off Iceland, when a gale arose and claimed captain, ship and all but one of the 43-man crew. ‘On January 25, at 4am, ’ Amundsen laconically recorded in his diary, ‘we reached our good little house again, with two sledges and 11 dogs; men and animals all hale and hearty.’ Despite his near-flawless success, there were those who felt Amundsen’s achievement was tainted by several factors. The expedition was also riven by a deep divide caused by the ship’s captain, Richard Vahsel, who was suffering from syphilis. At 1:14am on November 29, 1929, the plane reached the earth’s southern axis. Midwinter’s Day (June 22) 1903 was celebrated with a barrel of Guinness porter, a brew made more potent by the freezing of its water, unintentionally yielding concentrated alcohol. Finally, the tragic drama of Scott’s expedition was much more the stuff of legend than was Amundsen’s cool triumph of technical skill. Photography was first used in Antarctica on this expedition. Lonely Planet. Winter passed with various amusements (including reading and discussing old newspapers) and sledging expeditions to nearby islands. Antarctica is the Earth's southernmost continent, roughly centered around the South Pole. History of Antarctica: | |For the natural history of the Antarctic continent, see |Antarctica||. It sailed from Hoboken, New Jersey, in August 1928, in the square-rigged City of New York with not one, but three aircraft. The ship also boasted electric lighting and a 1500-volume library. British discoveries in the Peninsula region had not escaped the attention of the US government. They knew about the Arctic – named Arktos – The Bear, from the constellation the great bear, and decided that in order to balance the world there should be a similar cold southern land mass that was the same but the opposite “Ant - Arktos” - opposite The Bear. The brutality of their work impressed even the sealers themselves. Later, James Clark Ross, to whom Wilkes gave a manuscript copy of his tracing of the Antarctic coastline, announced that he had sailed over positions Wilkes laid down on his chart as land. From Framheim, Amundsen had the advantage of starting 100km closer to the Pole, but he also had to pioneer a route up to the polar plateau from the Ross Ice Shelf. Another Briton, John Biscoe (1794–1843), joined the Royal Navy at age 18 and fought in the 1812 war against the US. Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, a Baltic German officer in the Imperial Russian Navy; Edward Bransfield, an officer in the Royal Navy; and Nathaniel Palmer, an American sealing captain, all may have sighted Antarctica in 1820. Ten million years later, Gondwana began the enormously slow process of breaking into the pieces we recognize today, and the continents, subcontinent and islands began moving into their present positions. Its objective was to study outer space and the whole earth, with 66 countries participating from locations around the globe. In late 1934 he was back in the Antarctic, with a new flight plan: the expedition would fly from Wilkins’ old base at Deception Island to the Ross Sea via the Weddell Sea. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Morning’s captain, William Colbeck, had been the surveyor on Borchgrevink’s Southern Cross. The Belgian Antarctic Expedition included a Romanian zoologist, a Russian meteorologist, a Polish geologist and a Norwegian who offered to join the expedition as first mate, without pay: Roald Amundsen. Belgica finally reached Punta Arenas on March 28, 1899. On January 4, 1912, the last support party turned back. The History of Antarctica It was the ancient Greeks who first came up with the idea of Antarctica. Part of Cook’s genius lay in persuading the Royal Navy of the value of these ships that he had come to know in his earliest seagoing days as a deckhand on the coal run from Yorkshire to London: he knew that these shallow-drafted barques could explore close inshore without risk of running aground. He advanced through the ranks, and was promoted to commander in June 1900. A sledging party journeyed 80km to the Antarctic coast, discovering along the way a low volcano they named Gaussberg after their ship. He was forced to head home after reaching 71°30´S. Upon leaving the frozen southern seas for the last time, Cook wrote: Thick fogs, Snow storms, Intense Cold and every other thing that can render Navigation dangerous, one has to encounter and these difficulties are greatly heightned by the enexpressable horrid aspect of the Country, a Country doomed by Nature never once to feel the warmth of the Suns rays, but to lie for ever buried under everlasting snow and ice. (Charcot had secured a pre­nuptial agreement from her that she would not oppose his explorations.). A month later, Oates was in such bad shape that he prayed not to wake upon retiring. A month later he was named leader of the British National Antarctic Expedition, which the country’s exploration establishment had been planning since the mid-1880s. The US Congress, however, handed Wilkes his bitterest defeat, authorizing publication of just 100 copies of the expedition’s official report. The expedition even published a shipboard newspaper, Das antarktische Intelligenzblatt (the Antarctic Intelligencer). In 1943 Britain began the permanent occupation of Antarctica, establishing Base A at Port Lockroy. Bruce asked the British government to continue staffing Omond House, but his request was refused. Just minutes off the quay a hawser parted, striking and killing a sailor; the expedition was delayed 12 days before departing without further incident. But their landfall was at King Haakon Bay, on South Georgia’s bleak, uninhabited southwest coast; the whaling stations were on the island’s northeastern side. During the early Jurassic (around 200 myr ago) oceanic crust began to subduct beneath the Pacific margin of Gondwana. The expedition crossed the Antarctic Circle on January 26, 1820, and the next day became the first to sight the Antarctic continent. Aside from Hansen’s death, there were other accidents – including a nearly disastrous fire and a narrow escape from coal-fume asphyxiation – but the expedition escaped the dietary and psychological dangers experienced by Belgica’s crew. Elephant seals also were hunted for the oil that can be rendered from their blubber rather than for fur, which they lack. It’s almost more remarkable that he didn’t find Antarctica, given that he managed to get so much further south than anyone before. When they were within 30m of the ship, a wind shift tightened the pack ice. Shackleton especially was suffering badly from scurvy – but accounts of the trip that say he had to be carried on the sledge are incorrect. Petty jealousy of some officers, coupled with his harsh shipboard discipline, entangled Wilkes in a messy trial in a Naval Court of Inquiry held at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. There, Filchner met aboard Fram with Amundsen, who was on his triumphant return from the Pole. by clicking the Privacy policy link at the bottom of the page. ‘There was nothing now to mark that scene; only a white desolation and solitude disturbed by the sound of our engines.’. Six men led by Professor TW Edgeworth David ascended Mt Erebus for the first time, reaching the rim of the volcano’s crater on March 10, 1908 after a five-day climb. Charcot ignored the advice, turning south once more. This treaty, which was an unprecedented landmark in diplomacy, preserves the continent for nonmilitary scientific pursuits and placed … Still, Shackleton’s troubles were not over – the Ross Sea party had encountered its own difficulties. He claimed it for George IV, naming it first New South Britain, then New South Shetland. Antarctica was a mysterious place whose extent was originally imagined to be enormous: it was thought to cover the whole Southern Ocean and connect to the southern extremes of the known continents. ‘This time, ’ he exulted, ‘I had a tremendous sensation of power and freedom – I felt liberated...for the first time in history, new land was being discovered from the air.’ Important though the flight was, Wilkins was deceived by the appearance of the Peninsula from above. Mawson sawed the remaining sledge in half with a pocketknife to lighten his load. The seals in all these localities have been destroyed entirely by this indiscriminate killing of old and young, male and female. But even if he did see Antarctica on that occasion, his sighting came 10 months after Bellingshausen’s (January 27) and Bransfield’s (January 30) earlier that year. Nevertheless, Borchgrevink’s return to England was all but unheralded. Among the effects the searchers found in the tent with the men’s bodies was Amundsen’s letter to the King of Norway. After calculating on January 22, 1841 that he had surpassed Weddell’s furthest south, Ross turned for Hobart. I can unsubscribe any time using the unsubscribe link at the end of all emails. Biscoe was also struck by the beauty of the aurora australis, which, he recorded, ‘at times (appeared) not many yards above us.’ Oncoming winter forced the ships north to Hobart, but scurvy so ravaged Tula’s crew that only Biscoe, three other men and a boy were able to work. They proved the feasibility of Antarctic overwintering and introduced new technologies. On November 16, either from a high lookout at Deception or from Hero’s masthead, he saw Trinity Island to the southeast and probably the Antarctic Peninsula beyond. On January 14, 1941, at 59°S, 2°30´W, (between the South Sandwich Islands and Bouvetøya), Schiff 33 (also known as Pinguin) stealthily approached and then captured one supply vessel, two factory ships and 11 whale-catchers – with a combined cargo of more than 18, 000 tonnes of valuable whale oil. Eventually they tacked north to escape the oncoming winter, spending four months in the South Pacific in 1820. On January 3, 1902, Discovery crossed the Antarctic Circle, and six days later stopped briefly at Cape Adare. All offered little shelter from the wind and weather. The first Ellsworth Antarctic Expedition in 1933–34 ended after one short flight from skis in the frozen-over Bay of Whales. Six days later, a party went ashore at Cape Adare in what was claimed to be the first landing ever made on the continent outside the Peninsula. Through sheer willpower, they reached 82°17´S on December 30 before turning back. Instead of reproach, he received the highest award of the newly established Royal Geographical Society. Gangs were typically dropped off on a promising beach and left for months at a time while the ship continued in search of other sealing grounds. They were forced to spend another winter, arriving home in Australia in late February, 1914. The Arctic was Amundsen’s first interest.

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